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考博英语词汇语法题常考知识点专项练习:定语从句

2019-03-15 16:25:22来源:网络

考博英语词汇语法题常考知识点专项练习:定语从句

  全国各院校考博英语考试题型中词汇语法题也是大多院校所考察的,考博复习冲刺阶段新东方在线考博频道为考生们整理了一系列考博英语词汇语法题常考知识点专项练习供考生们复习参考。希望大家能熟练掌握,考博成功。

考博英语词汇语法题常考九大类知识点专项练习汇总

  定语从句用法归纳

  定语从句用来充当句中定语的主谓结构;它主要用于修饰句子中的名词、代词。而定语从句的位置常常是紧跟在被修饰的名词、代词的后面。在被修饰的名词、代词与定语从句之间往往有一个关系词将其前后两部分联系成一个整体,或是构成一个名词短语;或是构成一个代词短语。但从结构上说,关系词与从句是一个整体。排除句子的其他各部分,这种带有定语从句的名词短语或是代词短语的构成可演示如下:

  1)three signs that indicate a person is suffering from a panic attack rather than a heart attack

  三种意味着一个人是患有惊恐症而不是心脏病的迹象在这个带有定语从句的名词短语中:

  signs是:被修饰的名词;

  that是:关系词;

  that indicate a person is suffering from a panic attack rather than a heart attack是定语从句

  2)those who drink a lot 那些大量饮酒的人在这个带有定语从句的代词短语中:

  those是:被修饰的名词;

  who是:关系词;

  who drink a lot是:定语从句通过上面的演示,我们可以归纳出定语从句在句子中的位置、结构如下:

  被修饰的名词 / 代词 + 关系词 + 句子 (其中,"被修饰的名词/代词"在语法叫作"先行词".)

  要点提示:

  1)"先行词"与"关系词"的内在联系"先行词"与"关系词"之间实质上是互等、互换的关系。也就是说,关系词的作用就是将先行词所表达意义"代到"从句中来起作用。例如:

  They often become easily frightened or feel uneasy in situations (先行词)where (关系词)people normally would not be afraid .

  他们常在人们一般不会感到害怕的情况下却很容易感到恐惧或是感到不自在。

  (本句中的关系词where = 先行词(in)situations 。如果把这个复合句拆成两个分句,那就是:

  They often become easily frightened or feel uneasy in situations

  people normally would not be afraid in situations 由此可以看出,"先行词"与"关系词"之间实质上是互等、互换的关系)。 又例如:

  Rude people are those (先行词) whose (关系词)behavior shows little respect

  for the rules(先行词) that(关系词) the majority follows .

  不讲礼貌的人是指那些,他们的行为对大多数人所遵从的规则并不表示尊敬的人。

  由此我们还可以看出,"先行词"往往是分别重复出现在两个分句中的名词或代词。这也就是我们做定语从句的条件之必需。否则,"关系词"就无法去替代"先行词"而构筑定语从句了。这个道理就如同我们在计算机上"做剪贴以前要先做复制"一样。)

  2)"先行词"的意义决定"关系词"的选择"关系词"的选择往往是由"先行词"自身表达的意义,以及它在从句中的语法功能而决定的。

  这个意思就是说,假如"先行词"自身表达的意义是表示"人的意义"或是"物的意义",那么我们就相应地选择表示"人的意义"或是"物的意义"的"先行词"。"先行词" 在从句中的语法功能也是决定"关系词"选择的重要条件。比如说,同样都是表示"人的意义"的"先行词",如果它在从句中作主语,"关系词"就得用表示"人的意义"的主格形式,如果它在从句中作定语,"关系词"就得用表示"人的意义"的所有格形式。另外,有时"先行词"本身是表示事物的名词,而它在从句中却与介词构成了短语,在从句中充当状语,在这种情况下,我们就应该用"关系副词"而不能用"关系代词"了。例如:

  Some people who are successful language learners often fail in other fields .

  有些在语言学习上很有成就的人,在其他领域常常一无所成。

  In our class , we have some students whose families are not in Wuhan.

  我们班上有些家不在武汉市的同学。

  There are many sounds which have a meaning and yet are not words .

  有许多声音有意义但不是词。

  Tell him to go to the classroom where we often have our English class .

  如果把这个复合句拆成两个分句,那就是:

  tell him to go to the classroom .We often have our English class in the classroom )

  告诉他去我们常上英语课的那间教室。

  定语从句专项练习

  概念:

  1. 定语从句在句子中作定语,也就是修饰名词(或代词),这个被修饰的词叫先行词。

  2.定语从句必须有先行词,并尽量靠近先行词。

  3.在定语从句中,关系词本身无固定的意义,其意义随先行词而定,在从句中充当成分。

  1. They are talking about things and persons ___ they knew when they were young. A. that B. which C. who D. whom

  2. This is the man ___ last night. A. whom I saw him B. whom I saw C. which I saw D. who I saw him

  3. The seventeenth century was one ___ many advances were made in science. A. that B. which C. where D. when

  4. We travelled together as far as Chicago, ___ we parted. A. when B. which C. why D. where

  5. The reason ___ I’m writing is to tell you about a party on Saturday. A. because B. why C. for D. as

  6. Author Edith Wharton thoroughly understood the society ___. A. she had grown up in it B. which had she grown up in C. she had grown up D. in which she had grown up

  7. This is one of the best books ___. A. that have ever been written B. that has ever been written C. that has written D. that have written

  8. The first time ___ I saw Premier Zhou was in 1958. A. when B. where C. which D. that

  9. Which of the two cows ___ you keep produces more milk? A. that B. which C. whom D. what

  10. He met my brother, from ___ he got the news of my marriage. A. who B. whom C. which D. whose

  11. Would you please put the book ___ it belongs? A. to whom B. to which C. into which D. where

  12. Do you remember the name of the company ___? A. where she works at B. in which she works C. for which she works in D. in where she works

  13. This is the most difficult book ___. A. what I have read it B. which I have read it C. I have read D. I have read it

  14. The last place ___ was the Science Museum. A. we visited B. where we visited C. which we visited D. we went

  15. All ___ you have to do is to press the button. A. what B. which C. for that D. that

  16. Her opinion is the same ___ her mother’s. A. that B. as C. than D. like

  17. Peter lives in the room ___ window opens to the south. A. whose B. that C. which D. /

  18. Did she tell you anything ___ had happened to her? A. it B. that C. what D. which

  19. I’ll never forget the days ___ we spent together five year ago. A. which B. when C. where D. how

  20. July 1, 1921 was the day ___ the Communist Party of China was founded. A. that B. on which C. which D. on that

本文关键字: 考博英语 考博英语词汇

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