Publishing in scientific journals is the most common and powerful means to disseminate new research findings. Visibility and credibility in the scientific world require publishing in journals that are included in global indexing databases such as those of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI).(描述社会事实) Most scientists in developing countries remain at the periphery of this critical communication process, exacerbating the low international recognition and impact of their accomplishments.(主题句----基于社会背景提出问题)For science to become maximally influential and productive across the globe, this needs to change.(作者观点)
The economy of electronic publication, open access, and property rights fuel current academic and policy debates about scientific publishing in theindustrialized world(发达国家出版条件优越).The concerns in the developing world(with few ISI-indexed journals) focus on more fundamental questions, such as sustaining local research activity and achieving the appropriate global reach of its science activities.(发展中国家出版还只关注更基本问题)
The essence of the African situation is captured by R. J. W. Tijssen's analysis of publications by African authors,which was based not only on data from ISI indexing databases, but also on publications not indexed in this system.(引用Tijssen对非洲作者出版的分析来揭示非洲出版的现状)Surprisingly,half of the South African citations in the indexed ISI literature are to articles in nonindexed, locally published journals. Also, several nonindexed local journals are cited in the ISI system at about the same rate as are indexed journals. The share of indexed articles with at least one author with an African address remains steady at about 1%. About half of the ISI-indexed papers with at least one author with an African address have non-African partners outside of the continent. These figures vary, country by country, sometimes in surprising ways. For example, 85% of the papers published from Mali or Gabon involve collaborations on other continents, versus 39% and 29% , respectively, for South African and Egypt, the continent’s leading research producers. Thus, much of the Africa research system is now highly dependent on collaborations.(Tijssen所做的调查得出的具体内容)
(提出措施)Howcan the global reach and potential impact of scientific research in Africa and other developing countries be optimized(措施)Of primary importance is boosting the quality and quantity of work that is locally published, through measures including review of submissions by peers research opportunities.(措施的实施的具体方案)A proliferation of journals, short-lived publications, print-only journals, and poor distribution constitutes a picture thatmust change. A nationally organized project can probably make the biggest difference, with investment by government and research-support agencies, as well as wide participation by local and regional scientific communities.
86. The author cries for a change in__________.
A. the recognition of new research findings
B.the allocation of research resources
C. the global indexing database
D. global science publishing
87. According to the author, the low international recognition and the impact of scientists of developing countries are attributed to __________.
A. their reluctance to publish the ISI journals
B. their low involvement in international science activities
C. their limited publications in global indexing database
D. their poor understanding of the current scientific practices
88. The survey conducted by Tijssen justified the author's view that__________.
A. to publish is to disseminate new research findings across the globe
B. new research findings ought be published in the globally indexed journals
C. such importance should be attached to global collaborations in doing science
D. most scientists in developing countries remain marginalized in global science publishing
89. To address the current situation, the author argues that it is imperative that__________.
A. developing countries establish a set of standards in science of publishing
B.scientists have their own journals in developing countries
C. more scientific studies be both qualified and quantified
D. quality and quantity be desired in the local journals
90. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage
A. Science without Boundaries
B.How to Keep Science Moving
C. Globalizing Science Publishing
D. Globalization and Nationalization
In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human–relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.
The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interesting life. They live anddie without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.
Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence. From the moment on they are tested again and again – by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow – competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.
Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise”capitalism Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities – those of all love and of reason – are the aims of social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.
1.By “ a well-oiled cog in the machinery “ the author intends to deliver the idea that man is ____.
A.a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible
B.working in complete harmony with the rest of the society
C.an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society
D.a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly
2.The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ____.
A.they are likely to lose their jobs
B.they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life
C.they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence
D.they are deprived of their individuality and independence
3.From the passage we can conclude that real happiness of life belongs to those _____.
A.who are at the bottom of the society
B.who are higher up in their social status
C.who prove better than their fellow – competitors
D.who could dip far away from this competitive world
4.To solve the present social problems the author puts forward a suggestion that we should ______.
A.resort to the production mode of our ancestors
B.offer higher wages to the workers and employees
C.enable man to fully develop his potentialities
D.take the fundamental realities for granted
5.The author’s attitude towards current industrialism might best be summarized as one of ______.