2022年考博英语精解:现象类说明文的写作特点

2021-09-25 16:31:00来源:网络

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  (2016年医学统考第六篇阅读理解)

  Publishing in scientific journals is the most common and powerful means to disseminate new research findings. Visibility and credibility in the scientific world require publishing in journals that are included in global indexing databases such as those of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI).(描述社会事实) Most scientists in developing countries remain at the periphery of this critical communication process, exacerbating the low international recognition and impact of their accomplishments.(主题句----基于社会背景提出问题)For science to become maximally influential and productive across the globe, this needs to change.(作者观点)

  (从社会现象引出本文主题:发展中国家的科学家仍然处于全球索引数据库期刊出版的边缘地带,这一现状需要改变)

  The economy of electronic publication, open access, and property rights fuel current academic and policy debates about scientific publishing in theindustrialized world(发达国家出版条件优越).The concerns in the developing world(with few ISI-indexed journals) focus on more fundamental questions, such as sustaining local research activity and achieving the appropriate global reach of its science activities.(发展中国家出版还只关注更基本问题)

  (对比:通过发达国家和发展中国家出版现状事实对比,论证作者观点)

  The essence of the African situation is captured by R. J. W. Tijssen's analysis of publications by African authors,which was based not only on data from ISI indexing databases, but also on publications not indexed in this system.(引用Tijssen对非洲作者出版的分析来揭示非洲出版的现状)Surprisingly,half of the South African citations in the indexed ISI literature are to articles in nonindexed, locally published journals. Also, several nonindexed local journals are cited in the ISI system at about the same rate as are indexed journals. The share of indexed articles with at least one author with an African address remains steady at about 1%. About half of the ISI-indexed papers with at least one author with an African address have non-African partners outside of the continent. These figures vary, country by country, sometimes in surprising ways. For example, 85% of the papers published from Mali or Gabon involve collaborations on other continents, versus 39% and 29% , respectively, for South African and Egypt, the continent’s leading research producers. Thus, much of the Africa research system is now highly dependent on collaborations.(Tijssen所做的调查得出的具体内容)

  (举例:通过列举Tijssen对非洲作者的出版研究分析论证作者观点)

  (提出措施)Howcan the global reach and potential impact of scientific research in Africa and other developing countries be optimized(措施)Of primary importance is boosting the quality and quantity of work that is locally published, through measures including review of submissions by peers research opportunities.(措施的实施的具体方案)A proliferation of journals, short-lived publications, print-only journals, and poor distribution constitutes a picture thatmust change. A nationally organized project can probably make the biggest difference, with investment by government and research-support agencies, as well as wide participation by local and regional scientific communities.

  (提出解决对策:提高当地出版作品的数量和质量)

  文章结构

  第一段 从社会现象引出本文主题:发展中国家的科学家仍然处于全球索引数据库期刊出版的边缘地带

  第二段 对比论证:通过发达国家和发展中国家目前出版的现状对比手法论证作者第一段的观点(拓展)

  第三段 举例论证:通过列举一位科学家对非洲作者的出版情况分析报告来论证作者第一段的观点(拓展)

  第四段 解决措施

  由此可知这类现象类的说明文第一段是全文的中心,其他段落都是对第一段的拓展,下面的试题也能说明这一点。

  86. The author cries for a change in__________.

  A. the recognition of new research findings

  B.the allocation of research resources

  C. the global indexing database

  D. global science publishing

  分析:考查作者的观点看法,即第一段大意。选项D正确。很多人会选B,首先B项在文章未提及,其次,B项是D的具体做法,属于过度推断。

  87. According to the author, the low international recognition and the impact of scientists of developing countries are attributed to __________.

  A. their reluctance to publish the ISI journals

  B. their low involvement in international science activities

  C. their limited publications in global indexing database

  D. their poor understanding of the current scientific practices

  分析:考查本文的主题,即作者提出的问题,定位到第一段第三句话。选C

  88. The survey conducted by Tijssen justified the author's view that__________.

  A. to publish is to disseminate new research findings across the globe

  B. new research findings ought be published in the globally indexed journals

  C. such importance should be attached to global collaborations in doing science

  D. most scientists in developing countries remain marginalized in global science publishing

  分析:粗看题干很多人会按题干定位到第三段,实则这道题还是考查作者的观点,即作者使用Tijssen的调查主要是为了说明他的什么观点,因此还是第一段的主题句,选项D是对主题句的同义转述。整个第三段我们做题时是不需要细看的,因为第三段是在描述调查的具体内容。

  89. To address the current situation, the author argues that it is imperative that__________.

  A. developing countries establish a set of standards in science of publishing

  B.scientists have their own journals in developing countries

  C. more scientific studies be both qualified and quantified

  D. quality and quantity be desired in the local journals

  分析:考查措施。定位到最后一段第二句可知选D。注意C选项运用了同形词进行干扰,意思是完全不符合原文的。

  90. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage

  A. Science without Boundaries

  B.How to Keep Science Moving

  C. Globalizing Science Publishing

  D. Globalization and Nationalization

  分析:考查文章主题,也是需要结合第一段的主题句进行选择。C项正确。

  总结:现象类说明文在考博阅读理解中很普遍,我们在阅读时要重要理解第一段的主旨,其次要明白其他段落和第一段的逻辑关系,做题时考虑文章主旨和篇章结构,就会事半功倍。

  下面选取了另一篇结构相同的考博阅读理解试题,大家可以来练一练。

  举一反三练习

  In general, our society is becoming one of giant enterprises directed by a bureaucratic management in which man becomes a small, well-oiled cog in the machinery. The oiling is done with higher wages, well-ventilated factories and piped music, and by psychologists and “human–relations” experts; yet all this oiling does not alter the fact that man has become powerless, that he is bored with it. In fact, the blue and the white-collar workers have become economic puppets who dance to the tune of automated machines and bureaucratic management.

  The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interesting life. They live anddie without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.

  Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence. From the moment on they are tested again and again – by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one’s fellow – competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.

  Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise”capitalism Certainly not. Problems are never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities – those of all love and of reason – are the aims of social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end, and should be prevented from ruling man.

  1.By “ a well-oiled cog in the machinery “ the author intends to deliver the idea that man is ____.

  A.a necessary part of the society though each individual’s function is negligible

  B.working in complete harmony with the rest of the society

  C.an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society

  D.a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly

  2.The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ____.

  A.they are likely to lose their jobs

  B.they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life

  C.they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence

  D.they are deprived of their individuality and independence

  3.From the passage we can conclude that real happiness of life belongs to those _____.

  A.who are at the bottom of the society

  B.who are higher up in their social status

  C.who prove better than their fellow – competitors

  D.who could dip far away from this competitive world

  4.To solve the present social problems the author puts forward a suggestion that we should ______.

  A.resort to the production mode of our ancestors

  B.offer higher wages to the workers and employees

  C.enable man to fully develop his potentialities

  D.take the fundamental realities for granted

  5.The author’s attitude towards current industrialism might best be summarized as one of ______.

  A.approval B.dissatisfaction

  C.suspicion D.susceptibility

  参考答案:1-5 CDDCB

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