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2018考博英语阅读经济学人文章每日精析:资本诉讼

2017-08-11 18:10:40 来源:新东方在线考博资料下载

2018考博英语阅读经济学人文章每日精析:资本诉讼

  考博英语阅读大部分博士研究生招生院校都使用《经济学人》杂志文章作为题源,新东方在线考博频道为考博生们将其中的文章进行深度分析,希望能提高大家的考博英语阅读水平,读懂长难句。

  导读

  巴克莱银行(Barclays Bank),全球规模最大的银行及金融机构之一,总部设于英国伦敦。巴克莱银行于1690年成立,是英国最古老的银行,具有逾300年历史,是全世界第一家拥有ATM机的银行,并于1966年发行了全英第一张信用卡,1987年发行了全英第一张借记卡。截止2013年,全球雇员达到140,000人。截至2012年总资产高达1.49万亿英镑,为全球第七大银行,在英国是位于汇丰银行(HSBC)之后的第二大银行。巴克莱银行在全球50多个国家经营业务,在英国设有2100多家分行。

  Capital charges

  资本诉讼

  Barclays and four former executives are charged with fraud

  巴克莱银行和四名前高管被控融资欺诈

  The starkest sign yet that the financial crisis will not go away

  而最明显的迹象是金融危机并没有消失

  IN 2008, as banks cracked on both sides of the Atlantic, Britain’s government prepared to shore up tottering lenders. It eventually poured £45bn ($71bn) into the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and £20.3bn into Lloyds, which ministers coaxed into buying the stricken HBOS. Barclays, however, needed no such help: the bank raised enough equity from private investors, notably in Qatar, to meet higher capital targets set by regulators as the crisis deepened, and thus escape a taxpayer rescue.

  2008年,随着大西洋两岸的银行四分五裂,英国政府准备支持岌岌可危的贷款机构。最终它向苏格兰皇家银行(RBS)投入了450亿英镑(约合710亿美元),并向劳埃德银行拨款203亿英镑,众部长劝说劳埃德银行收购处于困境中的哈里法克斯银行(HBOS)。然而,巴克莱银行并不需要这样的帮助:该银行已从私人投资者,特别是来自卡塔尔的私人投资者那里募集到了足够资产净值,以应对由于危机加剧监管机构制定的更高的资本指标,从而逃避了对纳税人的非法劫回。

  tottering: adj.蹒跚的,摇摇欲坠

  coax: v.哄,巧言骗取;哄劝,劝诱

  However, for five years Britain’s Serious Fraud Office (SFO) has been investigating Barclays’ dealings with the Qataris. On June 20th those inquiries yielded criminal charges. These include (remarkably, some will say) the first such charges to be levelled at the head of a big international bank as a result of the crisis. John Varley is a pillar of London’s financial establishment. Save for one short break he spent 28 years at Barclays, more than six in the top job, before standing down at the end of 2010. His wife’s father was a director. Barclays took over J. and J.W. Pease, founded by his in-laws’ forebears, in 1902.

  然而,英国重大诈骗案检察局(SFO)五年来一直在调查巴克莱与卡塔尔人的交易往来。 6月20日,这些调查结果引发了刑事指控。这些刑事指控包括(显然有人会说)首起以国际银行为首的起诉由于经济危机受到瞩目。约翰·瓦利(John Varley)是伦敦金融机构的支柱之一。他在巴克莱工作了28年期间除了短暂的休息外,在2010年底退位以前一人担任超过六个高层工作。他的岳父是一名导演。巴克莱接管了由他岳父家族祖先于1902年创办的J.和J.W. Pease。

  SFO:英国重大诈骗案检察局

  inquiry: 探究;调查,审查;质询,

  level:使瞄准;使对准

  pillar: 柱,柱脚;(组织、信仰等的)核心

  stand down:(从重要职位上)退下,下台(常为了让位给别人)

  The SFO has charged the bank, Mr Varley and Roger Jenkins, who headed Barclays’ investment-banking and investment-management business in the Middle East, with two counts of conspiracy to commit “fraud by false representation” and one of “unlawful financial assistance”. The charges are related to Barclays’ arrangements with the Qatari investors and a loan of $3bn made by the bank to the Gulf state in November 2008. Two other former executives, Tom Kalaris and Richard Boath, face one of the fraud charges. The bank is “considering its position”. Messrs Boath and Jenkins have said they will contest the charges. Messrs Kalaris and Varley have made no comment.

  英国重大诈骗案检察局已向负责巴克莱在中东的投资银行及投资管理业务的瓦利和罗杰·詹金斯控诉有 “虚假帐目欺诈”和“非法财务援助” 这两项阴谋。这些控告与巴克莱在2008年11月筹划向海湾国家提供了30亿美元的贷款及卡塔尔投资者有关。另外两名前高管托马斯·卡拉里斯(Richard Kalath)和理查德·博思(Richard Boath)也面临欺诈诉讼。银行正在“考虑其立场”。博思和詹金斯两位都表示会为自己辩护。卡拉里斯和瓦利都没有发表任何评论。

  conspiracy:阴谋;共谋;反叛

  That June Barclays raised £4.5bn from investors including the Qatar Investment Authority (QIA), owned by the Gulf state, and Challenger, which represented Qatar’s then prime minister. In October the bank raised up to £7.3bn more (of which £3bn comprised warrants convertible to shares over the next five years). Qatar Holding, an arm of the QIA which still owns just under 6% of Barclays, and Challengerpitched in. (Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, a member of Abu Dhabi’s royal family, and institutional investors also took part.) No investors have been accused of doing wrong.

  6月,巴克莱银行从包括由海湾国家所有的卡塔尔投资局(QIA)的投资者和代表卡塔尔当时总理的道奇(Challenger)那儿募集了45亿英镑。 10月份,该行的私募高至73亿多英镑(其中30亿英镑包括了在未来五年内可转换为股票的权证)。卡塔尔投资局的一个部门塔尔控股(Qatar Holding)仍仅持有巴克莱低于6%的股份,道奇也参与其中。(阿布扎比皇家成员谢赫·曼苏尔·本·扎耶德·阿勒·纳哈扬,还有机构投资者也有参与)没有其他投资者被指控犯罪。

  QIA:卡塔尔投资局

  warrants:n.授权证;许可证;(做某事的)正当理由;

  pitched in:v.参与;协力

  In June and October 2008 Barclays also made agreements to pay £322m over five years to Qatar Holding for advisory services in the Middle East.(读者试译) The bank has said that the first was disclosedat the time, but that the second, and the fees, were not. The loan followed in November. The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), a British regulator, and American authorities have looked into the service agreements. The FCA fined Barclays £50m in 2013; the bank appealed. The FCA then put its inquiry on hold until the SFO’s investigation was complete.

  巴克莱银行表示,第一次付款在当时泄露了,但第二次及其钱款没有暴露。这项贷款在11月份随之而来。英国监管机构金融行为管理局(FCA)和美国当局已经调查了这项服务协议。英国金融行为管理局在2013年罚了巴克莱银行5000万英镑;该银行提出上诉。然后,英国金融行为管理局将其调查搁置,直到英国重大诈骗案检察局的调查完成。

  FCA:(英)金融行为管理局

  disclosed: v.揭露;使显露;使暴露

  appealed: v .上诉;申诉

  The defendants are due in a magistrates’ court on July 3rd. However the case ends, it is merely the most spectacular sign yet that the crisis, a decade on, will not go away. Debate still rages over how to supervise banks; America’s Republicans are eager to ease post-crisis rules. Big European banks are still raising capital; this month a failing Spanish lender was rescued by a bigger rival; one Italian bank is in line for a state bail-out and two others are in desperate straits. And regulators are still pursuing the excesses of the go-go years. Barclays is battling America’s Department of Justice, which claims that it mis-sold residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBSs). RBS—still publicly owned—has braced itself for RMBS fines. Financial crises cast long shadows, and lingering ones.

  被告将于7月3日在裁判法院出庭。不管案件怎么结束,这只是经济危机最引人注意的迹象,即再过十年,经济危机仍不会消失。如何监督银行的争论仍然很激烈;美国共和党人渴望放松后危机时期的规则。欧洲大银行仍在筹集资金;本月,一家将要倒闭的西班牙贷款机构被一个更大的对手金融救援;一家意大利银行正等待国家救助,另外两家银行则陷入困境。监管机构仍在追求经济繁荣的岁月。巴克莱正在与美国司法部博弈,美国司法部声称该公司非法出售住宅抵押贷款证券(RMBSs)。 苏格兰皇家银行仍然是公有的,也已经准备好应对住宅抵押贷款证券罚款。金融危机影响深远,并在一直徘徊。

  defendant: n.被告

  spectacular: adj.惊人的;场面富丽的,壮观的;引人注意的;惊动一时的

  straits. n.(指因缺钱造成的)困境,窘迫

  brace v.(通常使做好准备(面对不快的事或困难)

  RMBSs住宅抵押贷款证券

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