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2018考博英语翻译汉译英解题技巧:用词多变、句式多变

2018-01-10 18:01:42 来源:新东方在线考博资料下载

2018考博英语翻译汉译英解题技巧:用词多变、句式多变

  一、用词多变

  1、常见一些简单词避用(必背)

  There is sth用 sth isavailable 替代

  Must 用have to do sth, haveno option but to do sth, have no choice but to

  do, have no alternative but todo sth

  Want hope 表示想的词用 intend to ,desire to do, have the intention of

  doing sth 替代

  Can 表示能的词用 be likely todo sth, may do sth, be able to do sth,

  Should 表示应该的词用be supposed todo, be expected to do, be wise to do替代

  Very表示非常的词用quite, pretty,entirely, completely替代

  Good等表示“好”的词用 wonderful, proper,wise, appropriate 替代。

  Bad ”坏”等词用 poor,terrible, awful 替代

  2、文中抽象高雅的词用常见词替代。如:“冰清玉洁、沉鱼落雁、闭月羞花、倾国倾城、花容月貌、如花似玉、国色天香……”一律用“very beautiful, attractive,appealing”替代。“袖手旁观”用“indifferent”代替。实在想不出简单词替换的修饰语(形容词、副词)可以省略蒙混过关,只把主谓宾翻译出来即可。

  二、句型多变。汉译英是一篇文章的翻译。最多5个句型即可,尽量避免重复句型的使用。

  任何文章几乎都可用的句型:

  1 简单句。推荐there be句型,但可替换成there stand/rest/lie/exist.如 there is a building beside a river替换成 there exist abuilding beside a river.

  2 定语从句。只要两个简单句有一个共同的词就可结合成定语从句:

  (1)The excitement left him

  (2)He experienced excitement in studying economics theories

  (3) Economic theory could cure societalproblems

  先把(3)里的economic theory 用that 代替,变成(4)that could cure societal problems;再把(4)跟在(2)economictheories之后,变成(5) He experiencedexcitement in studying economics theories that could cure societal problems; 由于(5)里的excitement又同(1)里的excitement相同,再用that 或which 代替并提到句首,变成(6)that he experienced in studying economics theories that could cure societal problems,在把(6)放到(1)excitement后变成(7)The excitement that he experiencedin studying economics theories that could cure societalproblems left him。最好把其中一个that 替换成which避免重复。

  最后这个定于从句是

  (8)The excitement that he experienced in studying economics theories which could cure societal problems left him。也可which前加一逗号变成

  (9)The excitement that he experienced in studying economics theories,which could cure societalproblems left him。还可把excitement后的从句加逗号变成

  (10)The excitement,which he experienced in studying economics theories that could cure societal problems, left him。但that 必须换成which, 为避免重复。第二个从句中的which 换成that.

  3 状语从句。两个简单句根据逻辑关系用if when although because 等词直接相连即是状语从句:

  原始句

  (1)The excitement left him

  (2)He experienced excitement in studying economics theories

  根据逻辑可以连成(3)Although He experienced excitement in studying economics theories, the excitementleft him。为了避免重复,最好把其中一个excitement 用代词代替。结果成为

  (4)Although He experienced excitement in studying economics theories,it left him

  4 变化句。定于从句变化如:Muhammad had great success that help people liftthemselves out of poverty 主动变ing, 去掉that变成Muhammad had greatsuccess helping people lift themselves out of poverty

  状语从句变化,如:Because thechildren admire his father’s behavior, they had the same action.

  从句主动变ing 主语与主句一致可省掉,关系词because可省掉。变成 Admiring hisfather’s behavior, they had the same action.

  5 特殊句型。推荐 not only butalso.

  练习例子

  丝绸之路是公园2世纪开始出现的一条联系中国和欧亚大陆的交通要道,由于这条道路开始时以丝绸贸易为主,所以人们便称它为丝绸之路。这条陆上道路从中国的长安开始,经甘肃、新疆,进而到中亚、西亚,并一直连接到地中海沿岸各国。丝绸之路不仅是一条古代通商的道路,它更是连接古代中华文明、印度文明、埃及文明、希腊文明和美索不达米亚文明的纽带,是东西方文化和科学技术交流的桥梁。

  The Silk Road refers to a transportroute connecting ancient China withCentral Asia, West Asia, Africa, and the European continent(定于从句变来的). It aroused asearly as the second century and was traveled mainly by silk merchants, hence the name(hence there was the name变来的). The Roadbegan Chang’an passed Gansu and Xinjiangto Central Asia, West Asia, and to lands of the Mediterranean.(简单句) The Silk Road functioned not only as a trade route, but also as a bridge(特殊句型) that linked the ancientcivilizations of China, India, Egypt, Greece and the Mesopotamian plains(定于从句).It also helped to promote the exchange of cultures, science and technology betweene ast and west(简单句).

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