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2018考博英语语法精讲:独立主格

2018-01-11 17:25:02 来源:网络考博资料下载

2018考博英语语法精讲:独立主格

  考博英语语法也是不可忽视的复习要点,对于语法的考察不仅出现在考博英语词汇语法题型、考博英语完形填空题型,更是贯穿于整个考博英语试卷中尤其是考博英语作文,下面新东方在线考博英语频道为大家系统全面的讲解2018考博英语语法各个重要知识点,希望大家认真复习。

  独立主格结构

  独立主格结构由名词或代词加上其他成分(分词、不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词或介词短语)构成。

  独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,所以在语法上不是句子。但多有名词或代词表示的逻辑主语,分词或不定式表示的逻辑谓语,有时还有其他修饰成分。(判断一个结构是否是句子的标准就是看看这个结构是否有谓语动词。)这种结构通常在句子中起方式、时间、原因、条件等状语或状语从句的作用,主要用于书面语。使用动词非谓语形式的独立主格结构可以改为句子形式(从句):独立主格结构加上连词,非谓语动词改为谓语动词形式,这样就成为从句了。

  例如:

  Today being Sunday, the library isn' t open.今天星期天,图书馆不开放。

  (原因)改为从句:

  As (Since) today is Sunday, the library isn' t open.

  例如:

  There being no buses,we had to take a taxi. 没有汽车了,我们只好坐出租车了。

  Because there were no buses, we had to take a taxi.

  The signal given,the bus started.信号发出后,公共汽车就启动了。

  (时间)改为从句:

  After the signal was given, the bus started.

  The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。

  The boy followed that man here,and climbed in,and had a sword in his hand.

  The mid-term examination is over, the end-of-term examination to come two months later.期中考试结束了,两个月之后进行期末考试.

  The mid-term examination is over, and the end-of-term examination is to come two months later.

  Weather permitting, we' 11 visit the Great Wall.如果天气允许的话,我们就去参观长城。

  If weather permits, we' 11 visit the Great Wall.

  The boy followed that man here, and climbed in, sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。(伴随状语)

  上文例句中sword in hand是由“名词+介词短语”构成,表示伴随的情况。这种表示伴随情的独立主格结构,有时可以用with

  引出,二者的意思是一样的,with结构更加口语话,更加常用。

  She left the office with tears in her eyes.她眼里含着泪水,离开了办公室。

  The teacher walked into the classroom, with a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.老师胳膊底下挟着一把尺子,手里拿着几本书,走进了教室。

  The teacher walked into the classroom. He was holding a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.

  Tian' anmen Square looks magnificent with all the lights on.华灯齐放,天安门广场显得美丽动人。

  With the boy leading the way, we found his house with no difficulty.由这孩子领路,我们毫不费劲地找到他的家。

  With him to give us a lead, our team is bound to turn out well.有他给我们带头,我们对一定能搞好。

  1、指出下列句子中的独立主格结构:

  1) My work having been finished, I went home.

  ---My work having been finished

  2)The woman sat smiling, surrounded by her flowers, a faraway look in her eyes.

  ---A faraway look in her eyes

  3) My watch having been lost, I didn' t know what time it was.

  ---My watch having been lost

  4) He came into the room, his face red with cold.

  --- his face red with cold

  5) There an elderly patient was sitting in her wheelchair alone, head  bowed, her back to most of the others.

  --- Head bowed. her back to mast of the others

  6) A man came in, his face hidden by an upturned coat collar and a cap pulled law over his brow.

  --- His face hidden by an upturned…….

  2、 用独立主格结构改正下列句子:

  1) Being cold, he put on his overcoat.

  ---It being cold, …

  2) Being no bus, we had to walk home.

  --- There being no bus, ...

  3) Getting colder, same birds are flying away to the south.

  --- It getting colder, ...

  4) Being ill, Mr. Li taught the lesson in place of Mr. Wang.

  --- Mr. Wang being ill, Mr. Li taught..

  5) Asia is the largest continent, being about 43 million square kilometer.

  ---…,its size (area) being about 43….

  3、 用独立主格结构将括号内的汉语译成英语填空:

  1)Bing Bing entered the room, _____ (手里拿着一个大苹果).

  ---- (with) a big apple in his hand.

  2) _____(下课了),the children ran out of the class room.

  ---The class being over

  3) The little girl waited at the bus stop for a long time, _____(鼻子冻得通红).

  ---her nose red with cold

  4) Here comes the Shanghai train, _____ (从福州来的火车)

  ---the Fuzhou train to come half an hour later.

  5) He was doing his homework._____ (他的父亲坐在旁边)

  6) ____(谁也没有什么可说的), the meeting was closed.

  -----Nobody having any more to say.

  By Sept. 2008 Beijing will have held/hosted the Olympic Games.  到2008年9月,北京将举行完了奥运会。

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