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2018考博英语语法精讲:分词的用法

2018-02-14 08:36:00 来源:网络考博资料下载

2018考博英语语法精讲:动名词作介词宾语

  考博英语语法也是不可忽视的复习要点,对于语法的考察不仅出现在考博英语词汇语法题型、考博英语完形填空题型,更是贯穿于整个考博英语试卷中尤其是考博英语作文,下面新东方在线考博英语频道为大家系统全面的讲解2018考博英语语法各个重要知识点,希望大家认真复习。

  1.作定语。作定语的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前。如果被修饰的词是something,anything,everything,nothing等,则分词放在这些词之后。分词短语通常放在被修饰的名词之后。

  例如:

  This is an interesting book。(=This is a book。It is interesting。)这是一本有趣的书。

  There is something interesting in the news。(=There is something in the news。 It is interesting。)消息中有些有趣的事。

  The man sitting by the window is our math teacher。(=The man who is sitting by the window is our math teacher。)靠窗户坐着的那个人是我们的数学老师

  The machine run by the old worker is made in Shanghai。(=The machine that is run by the old worker is made in Shanghai。)那位老工人开的机器是上海造的。

  Most of students singing were girls。(=Most of the students who were singing…)唱歌的学生多数是女生。

  Many of the villagers questioned refused to answer。(=Many of the villagers who were questioned…)被问的许多村里人都拒绝。

  注意:(1)分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:

  分词和它所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主、谓关系。动名词则没有这种关系,而表示它所修饰的词的用途或有关动作。

现在分词动名词
A sleeping child(a child who is sleeping)正在睡觉的孩子A sleeping car(a car for sleeping)卧车
A flying bird(a bird that is flying)飞鸟A flying course(a course for flying)飞行课程
A swimming girl(a girl who is swimming)游泳的女孩A swimming pool(a pool for swimming)游泳池
The running water(the water that is running)流水The running track(the track for running)跑道

  现在分词和它所修饰的名词都要重读,动名词所修饰的名词则不必重读。

  (2)现在分词作定语时,它表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生(或差不多同时发生)。

  例如:

  Who is the boy dancing over there?在那儿跳舞的少年是谁呀?

  The girls swimming in the sea were in danger。 在海里游泳的姑娘们有危险。

  如果两个动作在时间上有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而往往用主从复合句结构。

  例如:

  The man who has gone to Shanghai will be back again。到上海去的那个人会回来的。

  The teacher wants to talk to the students who smashed the windows。老师要找打破了窗子的那个学生谈话。

  (3)be的现在分词being不能用作定语(可用作状语或被动语态中的助动词)。表示这种概念时,也用主从复合句结构。

  例如:

  He has a brother who is a worker。他有一个当工人的兄弟。

  2、作状语。分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、行为方式等意义。表示时间和原因的分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。

  例如:

  Seeing the teacher entering the room,the students stood up。(=When the students saw the teacher entering the room,They stood up。)学生们看见老师走进房间,都站了起来。 (时间)

  Heated,the Metal expands。 (=The metal expands if /when it is heated。)金属受热而膨胀。(条件、时间)

  Being excited,I couldn’t go to sleep。(=As I was excited ,I couldn’t go to sleep。)我兴奋得睡不着觉。(原因)

  Being a student,he was interested in sports。(=As he was a student,he was interested in sports。)

  他是个学生,所以对体育运动感兴趣。(原因)

  Inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech,Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。(=As they were inspired by Dr.Yang’s speech,Li Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder。)李华和他的同学们受到杨博士讲话的鼓舞,决定更加努力学习物理。 (原因)

  The children went away laughing。=The children went away。They laughed as they went。孩子们笑着走开了。(行为方式)

  The professor stood there,surrounded by many students。(=The professor stood there。He was surrounded by many students。)教授站在那里,许多学生围着他。(行为方式)

  While reading the newspaper,father nodded from time to time。(=While he was reading the newspaper,father nodded from time to time。)看报时,父亲不时地点头。(时间)(分词前,可加表示时间的连词while或when。)


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