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2019考博英语阅读模拟练习题附详细答案解析(一)

2019-01-11 16:45:09来源:网络

2019考博英语阅读模拟练习题附详细答案解析(一)

  考博英语阅读理解题型想要获得高分平日的练习必不可少,新东方在线考博频道为考博生们整理了100篇考博英语阅读理解模拟练习题,希望考博生们做题时注意时间,认真对待,题后有详细的答案解析。

  Tesco is preparing a legal battle to clear its name of involvement in the dairy price-fixing scandal that has cost consumers £270 million. Failure to prove that it had no part in collusion with other supermarkets and dairy processors may land it with a fine of at least £80 million. The Office of Fair Trading (OFT) said yesterday that Asda, Sainsbury’s and the former Safeway, plus the dairy companies Wiseman, Dairy Crest and Cheese Company, had admitted being in a cartel to fix prices for milk, butter and cheese. They were fined a total of just over £116 million as part of a leniency deal offered by the watchdog to companies that owned up quickly to anti-competitive behaviour.

  Officials at the OFT admitted privately that they did not think they would ever discover which company or individual had initiated the pricing formula. But the watchdog recognises that at the time supermarkets were under pressure from politicians and farmers to raise the cost of milk to save dairy farming, though it is not certain that money found its way to farmers. The OFT claimed in September that it had found evidence that the retail chains had passed future milk prices to dairy companies, which then reached a fixed price among themselves.

  The average cost to each household is thought to be £11.25 over 2002 and 2003. Prices went up an extra 3p on a pint of milk, 15p on a quarter of a pound of butter and 15p on a half pound of cheese. There is no direct recompense for consumers, however, and the money will go to the Treasury. The National Consumer Council gave warning that the admissions would dent consumer confidence in leading high street names and that people would become sceptical of their claims. Farmers For Action, the group of farmers that has led protests over low milk prices since 2000, is seeking legal advice on whether it can now bring a claim for compensation.

  The OFT investigation is continuing, however, in relation to Tesco, Morrisons and the dairy group Lactalis McLelland, and any legal action is expected to be delayed until that is completed.

  Tesco was defiant and said that it was preparing a robust defence of its actions. Lucy Neville-Rolfe, its executive director, said: “As we have always said, we acted independently and we did not collude with anyone. Our position is different from our competitors and we are defending our own case vigorously. Our philosophy is to give a good deal to customers.”

  Morrisons has supported the OFT in inquiries into the former Safeway business that it took over, but in a statement said that it was still making “strong representations” in its defence. A spokeswoman for Lactalis McLelland said that the company was “co-operating” with the OFT. Industry insiders suggested that the three companies were deliberately stalling the OFT investigation.

  Sainsbury’s admitted yesterday that it had agreed to pay £26 million in fines, but denied that it had sought to profiteer. Justin King, the chief executive, said he was disappointed that the company had been penalised for actions meant to help farmers but recognised the benefit of a speedy settlement. Asda declined to say how much it would pay in fines and also said that its intention had been to help farmers under severe financial pressure.

  1. From the first paragraph, we may infer that _____

  [A] Tesco is the most resolute among all the retailers to defend its reputation.

  [B] it is already proved that Tesco has colluded with Asda, Wiseman, Dairy Crest and Cheese Company in fixing the dairy price.

  [C] Tesco is offered a leniency deal of £80 million because of its quick response to the anti-competitive behaviors

  [D] Tesco is trying its best to prove its innocence of the scandal.

  2. Who is most probably the initiator of the pricing formula?

  [A] Retail chains.

  [B] Farmers.

  [C] Dairy companies.

  [D] Politicians

  3. The word “defiant” (Line 1, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.

  [A] resisiting

  [B] angry

  [C] deficient

  [D] confident

  4. We may infer from Morrisons’ statement that _____

  [A] Morrisons turn out to be the most defentive when dealing with OFT.

  [B] Morrisons is reluctant to support the inquiries into the former Safeway business.

  [C] industry insiders suggest that Morrisons was trying to delay the OFT investigation with non-cooperation.

  [D] Morrisons indeed refuses to admit its involvement in the scandal.

  5. The writer’s attitude to Tesco can be said to be _____

  [A] biased.

  [B] objective.

  [C] sympathetic.

  [D] optimistic.

  篇章剖析:

  本文介绍了目前奶制品公司因内部设定价格而面临受到的调查和处罚的状况。第一段由Tesco公司目前正在通过法律解决自己面临的困境引出本文的话题;第二段是追溯牛奶价格上涨的原因;第三段是讲述牛奶价格上涨对消费者的损害;第四段又回到Tesco事件上,描述了其态度;第五段和第六段讲述其他相关公司对该事件的看法和态度。

  词汇注释:

  processor n. 加工者 `cartel n. 卡特尔, 联合企业, 垄断集团

  leniency n. 宽大,慈悲,慈悲宽厚的行为 dent v.使凹下, 凹进, 削弱

  defiant adj.挑战的, 挑衅的, 目中无人的 stall v.(使)停转, (使)停止, 迟延 profiteer vi. 牟取暴利

  难句突破:

  (1) They were fined a total of just over £116 million as part of a leniency deal offered by the watchdog to companies that owned up quickly to anti-competitive behaviour.

  主体句式: They were fined a total of just over £116 million as part of a leniency deal…

  结构分析: 这是一个复合句,其成分比较复杂。offered by the watchdog to companies作为一个分词短语来修饰前面的deal, 而后面that引导的定语从句又修饰companies。

  句子译文:他们总共的罚金只有差不多一亿一千六百万,这是监察部门对积极坦白反竞争行为公司的一种宽大处理。

  (2) The National Consumer Council gave warning that the admissions would dent consumer confidence in leading high street names and that people would become sceptical of their claims.

  [主体句式] The National Consumer Council gave warning…

  [结构分析] 这是一个复合句,句子的宾语warning 带着两个同位语从句,以that 引导;第一个同位语从句中,confidence in 后面是一个分词短语作介词的宾语。

  [句子译文]全国消费者委员会警告说长此以往会损害消费者的信心,人们也会逐渐怀疑委员会的声明。

  题目分析:

1. From the first paragraph, we may infer that _____

由第一段可以推断出______

[A] Tesco is the most resolute among all the retailers to defend its reputation.

[A] 在所有的零售商中,Tesco 捍卫其名誉的态度最为坚决。

[B] it is already proved that Tesco has colluded with Asda, Wiseman, Dairy Crest and Cheese Company in fixing the dairy price.

[B]已有证据显示 Tesco 和Asda, Wiseman, Dairy Crest 及 Cheese Company联合确定牛奶价格。

[C] Tesco is offered a leniency deal of £80 million because of its quick response to the anti-competitive behaviors

[C]由于对反竞争行为的快速反应,Tesco 会被轻罚八千六百万元作为宽大处理。

[D] Tesco is trying its best to prove its innocence of the scandal.

[D] Tesco 竭力证明自己和传闻无关。

  [答案] D

  [难度系数] ☆☆

  [分析] 推理题。第一段主要讲述了Tesco公司已被卷入和其他公司联手划定牛奶价格的丑闻中,目前正在通过法律手段来证明自己与此无关。选项A的表述在文章中并没有明确表述,Tesco 虽然正在诉诸法律手段保卫其名誉,但是否态度最坚决我们无法得知。选项B, 文章中只是说明后几家公司承认其定价行为,但并为说明Tesco与他们联合。选项C,文章指出如果Tesco的丑闻被证实后会被处以的处罚并且是一种宽大措施,但金额应该为£116而不是£80。选项D,Tesco 正在竭力证明自己和传闻无关,这正是第一段论述的内容。

  2. Who is most probably the initiator of the pricing formula?2. 谁最有可能是价格形成的始作俑者?

  [A] Retail chains[A] 零售商。

  [B] Farmers.[B] 牧场主。

  [C] Dairy companies.[C]牛奶公司。

  [D] Politicians[D] 政治家。

  [答案]B

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆

  [分析] 细节题。关于价格形成最初由谁引起,第二段和第三段有相关论述。第二段提到,监察部门发现超市受到政治家和农民的压力要求上调牛奶价格,而OFT发现了零售商将牛奶未来的价格信息传递给了牛奶公司,牛奶公司内部自己确定了价格。第三段又提到牧场主机构和牧场主一直在抗议低廉的牛奶价格。由此可以推断,最有可能引发牛奶价格确定的源头就是牧场主。

  3. The word “defiant” (Line 1, Paragraph 5)most probably means _____.3. “defiant”(第五段第一行)最可能的意思是______.

  [A] resisiting[A] 抗议的

  [B] angry[B] 愤怒的

  [C] deficient[C]不完善的

  [D] confident[D] 自信的

  [答案]A

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆☆

  [分析] 猜词题。根据其上下文的意思,Tesco 声称正在为自己的行为准备最坚决的辩护,其执行理事的一番话也表现了他们这种强硬的态度,可见他们采取了一种抵抗的态度,选项[A]最为符合。

  4. We may infer from Morrisons’ statement that _____.4. 从Morrisons的话可以推断出______。

  [A] Morrisons turn out to be the most defensive when dealing with OFT.[A] Morrisons在与OFT打交道时实际上是具防御性质的。

  [B] Morrisons is reluctant to support the inquiries into the former Safeway business.[B] Morrisons不愿意支持对前Safeway业务的调查。

  [C] industry insiders suggest that Morrisons was trying to delay the OFT investigation with non-cooperation.[C] 业界内部人士透露说Morrisons以不合作的方式竭力推迟OFT的调查。

  [D] Morrisons indeed refuses to admit its involvement in the scandal.[D] Morrisons实际上否认其卷入丑闻。

  [答案] D

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆

  [分析] 推理题。要结合上下文来理解Morrisons的意思,Morrisons has supported the OFT in inquiries into the former Safeway business that it took over, but in a statement said that it was still making “strong representations” in its defense. 前后两个分句是转折关系,可以看出Morrisons的态度。虽然他协助OFT对于前Safeway的调查,但是他却声称在辩护中仍要做出抗议。行动上他是一种合作态度,但他还是要竭力维护自己的利益、并且没有任何迹象表明其承认了卷入丑闻的指控,因此选项D最为符合。而其余三个选项都与前面的意思分析相反。

  5. The writer’s attitude to Tesco can be said to be _____5. 作者对于Tesco 的态度可以说是______。

  [A] biased.[A] 有偏见的。

  [B] objective.[B] 客观的。

  [C] sympathetic.[C] 同情的。

  [D] optimistic.[D] 乐观的。

  [答案]B

  [难度系数] ☆

  [分析] 态度题。 作者的态度可以通过材料的选择和措辞看出来,作者在文章中列出了Tesco有关方面的事件,但一直没有做出任何的直接评判,也没有通过任何字眼来暗示自己的意思,因此可以认为作者采取了一种比较客观的态度。

  参考译文:

  Tesco为了摆脱限定奶制品价格风波,正在准备一场大官司。奶制品事件已经给消费者带来了两亿七千万的损失。如果不能证明自己并未和其他超市、奶制品加工商串通一气的话,它就得接受至少八千万的罚单。昨天,OFT声称Asda, Sainsbury’s 和前 Safeway,还有奶制品公司Wiseman, Dairy Crest and Cheese Company都已承认它们联合设定了牛奶、黄油及奶酪的价格。他们总共的罚金只有差不多一亿一千六百万,这是监察部门对积极坦白反竞争行为公司的一种宽大处理。

  OFT官员私下声称他们不一定想要找出到底是具体哪家公司或哪个人发起这次价格行动的,但是监察部门承认这次超市受到政客和农民的双重压力,要求提高牛奶成本以拯救奶制品畜牧业,但是最终钱还不一定能流到农民手中。OFT九月份称他们已经发现证据证明零售链已经将未来的牛奶价格告知奶制品公司,然后奶制品公司自己内部设定了固定价格。

  2002和2003年间平均每户损失为11.25英镑。每品脱牛奶价格上涨3便士,每0.25磅黄油上涨15便士,每半磅奶酪涨15便士。但是消费者却没有任何的补偿,利润全部到了国库。全国消费者委员会警告说长此以往会损害消费者的信心,人们也会逐渐怀疑委员会的声明。Farmers For Action2002年以来一直领导农民抗议牛奶价格过低,目前在就是否可以申请补偿寻求法律意见。

  不过OFT还在继续对Tesco, Morrisons 和奶制品集团 Lactalis McLelland进行调查,任何法律行为都将推迟到调查结束。

  Tesco对此不屑一顾,声称在为自己的行为准备最坚决的辩护。执行理事Lucy Neville-Rolfe说:“正如我们一贯宣称的,我们行动完全独立,和谁都没有联合。我们的立场和我们的对手不一样,我们在尽力保护我们的事业。我们的理念就是为消费者更好地服务。”

  Morrisons协助OFT调查它所管理的前Safeway的交易,但是在一次声明中还称自己依然会在辩护中进行强烈的抗议。Lactalis McLelland的一个代言人说公司在和OFT“合作”,而企业内部人士暗示这三家公司在蓄意拖延OFT调查。

  昨天Sainsbury’s承认已经同意支付两千六百万的罚金,但是却否认它在牟取暴利。执行董事Justin King说本来是要帮助农民却因此受到惩罚,感觉很失望,但他也承认尽快解决更为有利。Asda不愿意透露要赔付多少,并声称其初衷是要帮助那些有沉重经济压力的农民。

--------------------------------正事专用分割线--------------------------

  考博英语是各博士研究生招生院校初试必考科目,也是复试分数线的其中一项,所以考博英语应该引起大家的重视。考博英语的复习大家还是要先了解所要报考的研究生院考博英语题型(各院校考试题型难度不同),根据题型及自己的薄弱环节有针对性的复习。

  考博英语是一项选拔性考试,尤其大多数考生早已脱离学习环境,单是靠平日复习背诵单词、做做习题,想要通过考博英语考试还是有一定难度。新东方在线2019通用考博英语签约全程班【直播+录播】的形式,名师授课,备考全程陪伴,科学分段学习,贴心的分题型课程设置,全方位真题讲练,服务于教学紧密结合,协议免费重读。力求让考博生顺利高分通过考博英语初试!

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