考博英语阅读填空题怎么快速完成

2022-03-03 07:11:00来源:网络

  面对考博阅读填空题的时候,许多考生会说:如果有足够的时间和词汇来理解这篇文章,我可以很容易地答题。那么,如何在时间和词汇量有限的前提下快速完成阅读填空题呢?

  第一步:精读题目,划出定位关键词

  填空题都是对原文的一句话或者几句话进行的同义改写。但是改写,有时并不是对原文彻底的替换,一些词仍然会保留它的原形,因此这种词可以帮助我们到原文中寻找题目所在的原句。

  但并不是每道题目都有明确的定位词关键词,个别题目的定位词很不明显。在这种情况下,考生可以先做临近的题目,再根据顺序原则进行顺推或逆推,把相关的句子找出来。

  第二步:确定所填词的词性

  预判所填词的词性有助于提高对正确答案的敏感性,精确锁定答案。

  第三步:识别句子关系,组织答案

  下面以北京邮电大学2021年的阅读真题为大家讲解做题的方法和步骤:

  The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequate rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities. The reptilian cortex also houses the “startle center”, a mechanism that facilitates swift reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That panicked lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defense. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodile defending its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs.

  Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship.

  Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalize and debate finer points of morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortex – which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as the laws of gravity and a concern for human rights).

  The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialize and go to sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean ground-breaking contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex.

  Understanding the triune (three-in-one) brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.

  Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy (surgical cutting of brain nerves), “one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”. In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behavior. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathize with or express concern for others.

  One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.

  Complete the sentences below. Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the Passage for each answer. Write your answers in the proper space for questions 52-55 on the ANSWER SHEET.

  52. A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as ______

  53. ______ in humans is associated with limbic disruption.

  54. An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his ______

  55. After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s ______ and higher-order thinking.

  【解析】

  52. brain dead

  根据题干关键词with only a functioning reptilian cortex“只有正常功能的爬行动物皮层”可以定位到第五段中The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. … Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.“例如,最具破坏性的脑损伤是被理解为脑死亡的情况。…… 在这里,尽管其他皮层永久性地消失了,但是爬行动物大脑皮层会在自动模式下工作。”,with only a functioning reptilian cortex和despite the permanent loss of other cortexes进行了意思的同义替换。再由题干可知,空格处应该名词,故填brain dread。

  53. Sociopathic behavior

  根据题干关键词limbic disruption“边缘皮层损害”定位到第六段中limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behavior.“边缘损伤与反社会行为密切相关”,limbic disruption和limbic damage属于同义替换,再由题干可知,空格处为题干的主语,应填名词,故填sociopathic behavior。

  54. neocortex

  根据题干关键词accident和Phineas Gage可以定位到第七段中Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it.“Phineas Gage在一次事故中幸存下来,当时一根金属棒刺穿了他的头骨,夺走了他相当大一部分的大脑皮层。”,accident和incident属于同义替换,Phineas Gage属于原词复现。再由题干的his可知空格应填名词,故填neocortex。

  55. animal propensities

  根据题干中关键词imbalance和higher-order thinking可以定位到第七段中Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered“当Gage的智力受到损害的时候,他的动物倾向明显地显露出来”,imbalance和intellectual abilities suffered属于同义替换,再由题干的Gage’s可知空格应该填名词,故填animal propensities。


2022考博精选好考,点击图片查看详情!

本文关键字: 考博复习 考博

关注新东方在线服务号

回复【考博真题】领取备考必看真题集

更多资料
更多>>
  • 考博英语面试如何准备

      一:查询并了解英语面试的详细流程,考查形式,以及所占复试中的比重。  关于英语面试这一块,不同学校有不同的流程以及考查形式,可

    来源 : 网络 2022-02-23 14:15:00 关键字 : 考博经验 考博

  • 英语线上开卷考试如何应对(社科院)

      去年社科院考博英语分为Part one和Part two两部分,一共三篇阅读,这三篇阅读文章都特别长。Part one有两个问题,每个问题对应一篇特

    来源 : 网络 2022-02-23 14:15:00 关键字 : 考博经验 考博

  • 申请考核制博士招生复试经验

      临近年底,各大高校考博序幕以博士报名为前奏拉开,想必各位考生已紧锣密鼓地开启最后的冲刺阶段。在申请考核制为主流的考博大势之下,

    来源 : 网络 2022-02-23 14:15:00 关键字 : 考博经验 考博

  • 2023年考博准备工作有哪些

      清晰考试模式  现有高校基本都采取统一考试(笔试),申请考核制,硕博连读,直博这几种人才选择模式。  申请-考核制  我们拿中国

    来源 : 网络 2022-02-23 14:15:00 关键字 : 考博经验 考博

  • 考博英语常见的名词复数

      1 单数名词变复数名词的常见6种规则变化  1)一般情况下直接在名词后加s,清辅音后读 s ,如maps cups chicks;浊辅音和元音后读 z

    来源 : 网络 2022-02-23 14:15:00 关键字 : 考博经验 考博

更多内容
更多>>
更多好课>>
更多>>
更多资料