2021年考博英语翻译模拟练习(四)

2021-07-21 14:38:00来源:网络

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  The Basis for Social Order

  Man, said Aristotle, is a social animal. This sociability requires peaceful congregation, and the history of mankind is mainly a movement through time of human collectivities that range from migrant tribal bands to large and complex civilizations. Survival has been due to the ability to create the means by which men in groups retain their unity and allegiance to one another.

  Order was caused by the need and desire to survive the challenge of the environment. This orderly condition called the “state”, and the rules that maintained it, the “law”. With time the partner to this tranquility, man marched across the centuries of his evolution to the brink of exploring the boundaries of his own galaxy. Of all living organisms, only man has the capacity to interpret his own evolution as progress. As social life changed, the worth and rights of each member in the larger group, of which he was a part, increased. As the groups grew from clans to civilizations, the value of the individual did not diminish, but became instead a guide to the rules that govern all men.

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  社会秩序的基础

  亚里斯多德说,人是社会性的动物。这种社会性要求人们和平共处,人类历史主要就是人类群体在时间长河中从游牧部落到复杂的文明社会的集合运动的演进过程,(这些群体中的)幸存者能幸存下来的原因就在于:他们有能力创造一种手段,从而能使他们所在群体中的人保持团结并相互效忠。

  出于必须和渴望战胜环境的挑战,人类建立了秩序。这样一种有秩序的状态就称作“国家”,而维持国家存在的规则就叫做“法律”。伴随着这些由法律和秩序建立起来的安宁、平静的是时间,在时间的流逝中,经过了数世纪的进化,人类终于进入了探索他自己所在的星系的时刻。在所有的生物中,只有人类的进化能被视为进步。当社会发生变革时,每个人在其所生活的大群体中的价值和权力都会增加。当人类群众从部落渐渐变成文明社会时,个人价值并未减少,相反,它成为了统治所有人的法令的指导。

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